July 11, 2008

Dairy Farming Glossary

Air admission hole: Hole in cluster to admit air.
Blind quarter: Udder quarter that does not produce milk.
Bulk milk cell count (BMCC): Measure of somtatic cells in the farm’s bulk milk.
Bulk milk tank (BMT): Tank that holds milk. Called milk vat.
Breeding worth (BW): Measure of genetic merit of an individual animal.
Claw: Manifold that holds the teatcups to form the cluster, connecting them to the long milk tubes.
Colostrum: First milk of a cow after calving.
Contract mating: Contract where top cows are mated to supply bull calves back to a breeding organisation.
Cowshed: Building where cows are milked. There are many kinds.
  • Tandem: Cows stand in straight line and milked from side.
  • Herringbone: Cows milked in rows standing at an angle to the milker who stands in a pit at udder level. Cups applied at the cow’s side or through hind legs.
  • Rotary: Cows milked on rotating platform. Cups applied through hind legs and may be removerd automatically.
Cup remover: Device to remove cups from cow when milking is completed.
Droppers: Tubes that hang down from milk line to carry milk or pulsation tubes.
Expected calving order: Listing of cows in order in which they should calve.
Filter: Device to remove main soil from milk.
Filter element: The paper or cloth liner inside the filter to collect the soil.
Foremilk: The first milk removed from each teat at milking. Used to check for mastitis.
Herd testing: Official sampling the milk from each cow for recording purposes.
Inflation: Same as liner.
Interceptor: Vessel on main airline to prevent liquid or foreign matter getting into vacuum pump.
Jetter: Device that connects to cups for flushing (washing).
Keratin: Cells that accumulate in teat canal to keep it closed.
Lactation worth (LW): Meaure of the genetic merit of an individual animal.
Let down: Release of milk from udder caused by hormone oxytocin.
Liner (inflation): Flexible sleeve that fits inside teat cup shell.
Long milk tube: Connecting tube between claw and milk line.
Long pulse tube (dropper); Connecting tube between tube and pulsator.
Mastitis: Infection of the udder.
Milk contact surface: Surface in direct contact with milk.
Milkfat: Fat portion of raw milk.
Milkflow indicator: Device to show milk flow leaving the cluster.
Milk line: Line that carries the milk from the cow to bulk milk tank.
Milk meter: Device to measure milk yield and allow a sample to be taken for testing.
Milk protein: Proteins in milk – albumin, globulin and casein.
Milk pump: Pump that moves milk from milk line through the filter and cooler on the way to the BMT.
Milk soil: Any contaminant of milk found on the plant such as protein film.
Milksolids: The fat plus protein in milk.
Milking machine: Device to enable milk to be drawn from a cow. Includes vacuum and pulsation system, clusters and other components.
Milking ratio: Percentage of the pulsation cycle during milk flow from the teat.
Milking robot: Machine which allows cows free access to be milked automatically when they choose.
Plate cooler: Device made of plates through which water and milk flow separately so water removes heat from the milk. Heat exchanger.
Pulsator: Valve mechanism to produce cyclic pressure change to squeeze and rest teat inside the liner.
Pulsation controller: Mechanism to operate pulsators.
Receiver: Vessl tha trecieves milk from the milkline and feeds the releaser.
Production Worth (PW): Estimate of genetic value of an individual animal.
Releaser: Mechanism that removes milk from under vacuum and discharges it to atmospheric pressure.
Reliability: Shows the degree of confidence that can be placed on a BW or PW.
Reverse-flow cleaning: System where cleaning fluids are pumped through the plant under positive pressure in the reverse direction to normal milk flow.
Sanitary trap: Interceptor vessel between milk system and air system to prevent milk overflow into airline.
Short milk tube: Connects the pulsation chamber and the claw.
Short pulse tube: Connects pulsation chamber with the claw.
Somatic cell count: Measures white blood cells in milk and used to indicate sub-clinical mastitis.
Standard plate count (SPC): Measure of bacterial contamination.
Stimulation: Washing or massaging the cow’s udder to encourage milk letdown.
Supernumary teat: A small extra teat that usually does not produce milk.
Surface cooler: Same as plate cooler.
  • Teat orifice: Opening on end of teat.
  • Teat canal: Opening through end of teat into the udder.
  • Teat cistern: Space inside teat into which milk flows.
  • Teat grand cistern: Space inside lower part of udder where milk accumulates.
Teatcup: Part of milking machine made up of the shell, short pulse tube and liner.
Teatcut crawl: Action of teatcup crawling up the teat during milking.
Teat spray: Sanitiser sprayed on the the teat orifice after milking to reduce mastitis.
Traits other than production (TOP): Traits such as temperament and udder and teat conformation which are not included in selection idexes.
Udder: The cow’s milk gland made up of four quarters each with a teat. Unit: The assembly of teat cups and ancillary equipment used to milk the cows.
Vacuum gauge: Pressure gauge that shows vacuum level in the system.
Vacuum pump: Pump that generates the vacuum to work the milking machine.
Vacuum regulator: Automatic valve that keeps a steady vacuum level.
Vacuum tank: Same as regulator.
Vacuum tap: Clamp tap or cutoff valve on long milk tube.
Vacuum tube: Connecting tube between reciever and airline.
Vat: Holding tank for milk. Same as BMT.
Venturi: Device that feeds chemicals into the discharge line of a reverse-flow pump.

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