July 11, 2008

Animal Health Glossary

Aetiology: Cause of a disease or a study of causes.
Acute: Disease that runs a rapid course over a short time.
Anaemia: Deficiency of red cell or haemoglobin in the blood.
Anaesthetic: Drug or gas used to render animal unconscious.
Analgesia: Loss of sensitivity to pain or pain killer.
Auscultation: Diagnosis by listening.
Ante mortem: Examination before death or slaughter.
Anterior: Upper part.
Anthelmintic: Drug used to control helminth parasites, especially internal parasites.
Antibody: Substance in blood that destroys infective agents.
Anticoagulant: Agent which stops blood clotting.
Antidote: Substance to neutralise a poison.
Antigen: Substance that causes formation of antibodies.
Antiserum: Serum produced by animal containing antibodies. Used to confer temporary immunity to other animals.
Ataxia: Loss of power over movement.
Bacteria: Single-cell disease organism (visible under microscope)
Benzimidazole: Active ingredient in "white" drenches.
Benign: Mild or non-malignant.
Campylobacter: Bacteria implicated in calf scouring. Affects humans (food poisoning).
Carrier: Animal that acts as a host for a disease and spreads it to others.
Cast: Animal on its side or back
Chronic: Disease that develops and heals slowly and is usually not fatal.
Clinical: Disease that shows outward signs.
Coliform: Bacterium allied to a group found in the gut.
Communicable: Disease that can pass on from on animal to another by direct contact.
Congenital: Condition found at birth.
Curable: Able to be cured.
Cyclic: Disease which occurs periodically.
Debility: Weakness.
Dermatitis: Disease of the skin.
Diagnosis: Identification of a disease.
Digestible Dry Matter (DDM): The amount of the Dry Matter fed to an animal that is digested.
Direct cause: The main cause of a disease
Disease: Any deviation from the normal state of health.
Dipping: Immersion animals in a chemical solution to kill external parasites.
Docking: Removing the tail from an animal. The short remainder of the tail is called the dock. In sheep can also refer to castration, which is done at the same time as tail removal.
Doing: Term to describe the state of health or growth of stock. For example “doing well” or “doing badly”.
Dosing: Same as drenching.
Drench: Substance given by mouth to cure a problem.
Drenching: Administering a liquid down the throat of an animal to improve its health.
Dry Matter (DM): Weight(kg) of feed offered to an animal minus the weight of the water in it.
Dystocia: Difficult delivery of an offspring.
Endemic: Disease that is present in an area.
Enteritis: Inflammation of the intestines.
Epizootic disease: Disease which attacks a large number of animals simultaneously.
Euthanasia: Death without fear, pain or suffering.
Enzootic disease: Disease which is indigenous to a certain area.
Exotic disease: Disease which we do not have in New Zealand.
Exanguination: Cutting the throat.
Febrile: Associated with fever.
Haemorrhage: Bleeding.
Haemorrhagic: Associated with blood
Hernia: Organ protruding from the abdominal cavity.
Hormone: Chemical messenger produced by ductless glands.
Immunisation: Production of artificial resistance to disease by a vaccine.
Immunity: Power to resist infection or actions of poisons.
Impaction: Condition where things pack together and cause blockage.
Implant: Drug put under the skin for slow release.
Indirect cause: Not the main cause but one which works through other factors.
Incompatible: Not able to combine, mutually repellent.
Incubation: Time taken to develop.
Incurable: Not able to be cured.
Infection: Invasion or multiplication of micro-organisms in tissues.
Infusion: Introduction of fluid (other than blood) into a vein.
Intramammary: Into the udder.
Intramuscular: Into the muscle.
Intraruminal: Inside the rumen.
Intravenous: Into a vein.
Lesion: Visible factors used as evidence of disease.
Lick: Block of material usually containing minerals placed in a paddock for stock to lick. May be a drum with rotating wheels or balls that stock lick to access the liquid.
Malignant: Very infectious or virulent.
Metabolic disease: Non-infectious disease caused by nutritional imbalance.
Molluscicide: Substance to kill snails.
Morbidity: Ratio of diseased animals to the whole group.
Neonatal: Period after birth.
Non endemic: Area where disease is not endemic.
Notifiable disease: Disease that must be reported to MAF.
Oestrus: Heat period when animal is ready to be mated.
Ovulation: When eggs or ova are released from the ovary.
Ovum: Female egg.
Palpation: Examination by feeling.
Pandemic: Rapid increase in disease beyond national boundaries.
Paralysis: Partial or complete loss of body functions.
Parasite: Organism or animal that lives on another living animal.
Parenteral: Giving a substance or drug into the digestive tract.
Pathogen: Disease producing organism.
Pathology: Study of disease.
Periparturient: Around birth and early lactation.
Photosensitisation: Abnormally sensitive to light.
Poison: Toxic substance.
Posterior: Lower part.
Polyvalent: Vaccine that prevents more than one disease.
Pouron: Parasite treatment poured along the animal’s backline.
Post mortem: Examination after death or slaughter.
Prevalence: Incidence or how many cases of a disease occur.
Prognosis: Forecast of the outcome of a disease.
Protozoa: Small worm-like disease organism that lives in the soil.
Pus: Blood, serum, damaged tissue, white blood cells and bacteria found at places of infection or injury.
Purulent: Containing pus.
Reaction: Visible response to foreign substance or infection.
Rupture: Common name for hernia.
Salmonella: Bacteria regularly implicated in calf scours. Affects humans (food poisoning).
Scarification: Small superficial scratches.
Scouring: Diarrhoea.
Sensitivity: Measure of the reaction to a diagnostic test.
Serology: The science dealing with serum and serum tests.
Serum: Blood component that separates from blood cells.
Sporadic: Scattered occurrence.
Steroid: Male hormone.
Sub clinical: Disease that shows not outward signs.
Subcutaneous: Under the skin.
Superficial: On the surface.
Surveillance: Monitoring to collect disease information.
Symptoms: Signs or indications of disease.
Tetany: Muscular spasms.
Therapeutic: Concerned with treatment or cure.
Titre: A strength of a solution.
Tolerance: Power to resist action of drug without being affected.
Toxin: Poison.
Trauma: Disorders caused by wounds or injuries.
Vaccine: Substance administered to animal to stimulate its defence mechanism.
Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine.
Vector: Living transmitter of disease organism.
Virulent: Very infectious.
Virus: Disease organism made up of DNA, too small to see under ordinary microscope.
Zoonoses: Diseases transmitted from animals to humans.

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